Overview for Science Programs

Introduction to Science

Science is a vast field of study that includes the understanding and enquiry of naturally occurring materials, substances, phenomenon, and processes. The pursuance of science is also the basis for every invention that humans have utilized to make life convenient, healthy and enjoyable. The subjects that make up science are pure sciences (biology, chemistry, physics), interdisciplinary sciences, architecture and engineering.

Entrance Exams

Aspiring scientists, academicians, analysts & engineers in India have to take competitive common entrance exams to secure admission in reputable science and technology colleges. They are responsible for researching the basis of everything that makes life easy and healthy - finding healthy solutions, finding the basis of technology, researching materials and improving upon applications for efficacy. Multiple exam-conducting bodies administer exams for entrance to core and applied science programs that include 3 or 4 year bachelor’s programs in physics, chemistry, mathematics, zoology, botany, agriculture, statistics, research, biotechnology, biophysics, biochemistry, geological sciences, natural sciences, anthropology, computer sciences, informatics and more.

Common University Entrance Test (CUET (UG) & CUET (ICAR - UG))

The common University Entrance Test is a standardized test for all central & select state and private universities for undergraduate programs. Conducted by the National Testing Agency of India, CUET is a multiple choice exam that consists of three sections – language, domain specific and general test. The choices in the language tests and domain specific section are enlisted and a choice of 1 language each in two parts of the language section and a maximum of 10 subjects can be chosen by a candidate.

CUET Exam Pattern Overview

Exam Mode Computer-based Test
  • Languages – 13 options for part 1, 20 options for part 2
  • Domain Subjects (Science) – Agriculture, biology/biological
  • studies, biotechnology, biochemistry, chemistry, environmental studies, computer science/informatics practices, engineering graphics, geology, home science, mathematics/applied mathematics, physics.
  • - General Test
Types of Questions MCQ
Medium of Exam English, Hindi & 11 Indian regional languages
Duration of Exam 120 minutes
Total Marks 400
Marking Scheme For MCQs:
  • +5 marks for each correct response
  • -1 mark for each incorrect response
  • 0 marks for unanswered questions
Tentative Exam date May 15 to May 31, 2024
Official Website

* Visit official website for latest updates.

IISER Aptitude Test (IAT)

IISER Aptitude Test is conducted by the Indian Institute for Science Education & Research as an entrance test for undergraduate, integrated and dual degree programs in science, technology and research in IISER, IISc and IIT Madras. It comprises of only multiple choice questions for four subjects – biology, chemistry, mathematics and physics, 15 questions for each subject & 60 questions in total.

IMU-CET Exam Pattern Overview*

Exam Mode Computer-based Test
Subjects Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, General Knowledge, General Aptitude, English
Types of Questions MCQ
Medium of Exam English
Duration of Exam 3 Hours
Total Marks Total Marks 200
Marking Scheme For MCQs:
  • +4 marks for each correct response
  • -1 mark for each incorrect response
  • 0 marks for questions unanswered
Tentative Exam date June 2024
Official Website

* Visit official website for latest updates.

State Universities CET

State universities not participating in CUET have separate entrance test for their programs. Candidates must check the validity of the exam they are taking with the programs and universities. If the universities they want to apply for are not included in CUET, they can register for university specific common entrance tests like Panjab University CET, Indraprastha University Common Entrance Test etc.

Engineering Exams

Engineering is a vast & diverse field of science that involves application of scientific and mathematical principles to design and create solutions. There are standardized national, state-wise and college specific exams. Read more about them here.

Medical Exams

Admission to programs in medicine India is through a common entrance test called the National Eligibility Cum Entrance Test (NEET) or entrance tests by specific state universities. Read here for more details.

Specialisations in Science

The expansive field of science allows students to specialize in core and interesting mixes of core areas. Some specializations, which can be pursued for graduation and post-graduation are:


Chemistry and material science graduates research and analyse the chemical properties of substances to develop new materials, products and knowledge. They work as researchers, forensic specialists and food safety officers and more.


Biochemistry is a detailed study of chemical and physical fundamentals of living beings and their biological processes like cell development, growth, heredity, and disease. They analyse enzymes, DNA, and molecules to observe the effects of food items and drugs on biological processes.


Zoology is a study of animal behaviour and anatomy. Zoologists observe animals in their natural habitats, zoological parks and captivity to understand their interaction with other plant and animal species in the ecosystem.


Plant science or botany delves deep into the enquiry and knowledge of plants and trees. Some botanists study the structure of the plants, while some others study microscopic plant life like fungi, algae in laboratories and in their natural environments.

Environmental Science

This is the study of natural sciences to protect environment and improve human health. Environmental scientists can work in areas of technology for environmental cleaning, policy advisory, waste reduction for industries & waste management.


Biotechnology is a mix of biological study of genetic material, chemical and physical attributes of cells, tissues and organisms and their application in industries. Professionals create and improve products and processes for agriculture, medicine and conservation using biological organisms.


Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, their biology and behaviour patterns. Microbiologists study about the life, growth and environmental interaction of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and some types of parasites.


This is the study and exploration of the fundamental properties and laws that govern space, time, energy and matter. Physicists work in diverse professions in research, education and technology.


Mathematics is a specialized study of the relations of numbers which has diverse applications in businesses, finance and banking, scientific studies and more.


This is a study of basics and techniques for soil analysis, conservation, crop production, livestock & poultry breeding, tree planting, and other biotechniques. Agriculturists majorly direct agricultural initiatives and activities for farms, food and agribusinesses.


Geology is the study of rocks, their formations, minerals, and other earth material and how they morph with time. Geologists also study natural resources like water, oil, and human impact on climate, plants and animals alongwith the investigation of fossils and ancient forms of life.

Job Options in India

Science graduates and post-graduates get multitudes of job opportunities in diverse fields and industries. They can work as researchers and scientists, engineers, consultants, statisticians, analysts and more. A detailed account of roles that science graduates can work on, are given as under.

Forensic Scientists

Also called criminalists, forensic scientists use biological and scientific knowledge to support legal decision-making to direct criminal and civil law. They also conduct research in forensic disciplines like DNA, ballistics, fingerprint analysis, trace evidence, digital evidence and more.


Pharmacists work on the usage and administration of medicines. They also develop and prepare compounded medicines and act as a bridge between the doctor’s prescription & advice and the patients.

Data Scientists

They are analytical professionals who collect, analyse and interpret data to help drive decision-making. They analyse things like market trends, financial risks, cybersecurity threats, stock trades, equipment maintenance needs and medical conditions.

Food Technologists

Food technology professionals work on improving the quality, nutritional value and shelf-life of food materials by working on the chemical, physical and biological properties.

Researchers – oceanography, forestry

Researchers and scientists work in a vast variety of specific areas in fields such as biotechnology, biochemistry, physics, chemistry, mathematics, zoology, botany, anthropology, statistics, oceanography, forestry, forensic science and many more.


Statisticians in the public and private sector work on creating the tools for data analysis & analytical models in business, education, healthcare, administration and more. They help government and businesses make important decisions for procedural, logistical and administrative problems.

Scientific Consultants

They are experts with advanced degrees in science who advice companies and governments on matters of research, development and design of products and services.


Science is a vast field and a haven for the curious. The vast field offers multiple opportunities for research and application of principles in different areas. The three levels of study (undergraduate, graduate and doctorate) and interdisciplinary nature of subjects create opportunities to choose not a single line of interest to work on, but collaborate with scientists in various other fields and other stakeholders directly.